COVID-19, Equity and Men’s Health Using Evidence to Inform Future Public Health Policy, Practice and Research Responses in Pandemics

Main Article Content

James A. Smith
Derek M. Griffith
Alan White
Peter Baker
Daphne C. Watkins
Murray Drummond
Andrea Semlow


In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) reflected a global pandemic. Early epidemiological analyses demonstrated that boys and men have similar rates of COVID-19 infection to girls and women. However, boys and men appear to be disproportionately impacted with respect to severity and mortality, including those from marginalised or minority backgrounds. Yet, considerations of sex and gender, and their relationship to health and social inequities, have been absent from recent COVID-19 policy and practice pandemic responses. This evidence-based commentary discusses the nexus between COVID-19, equity, and boys and men’s health from a broad public health perspective. Using scholarship about intersections between race and gender; and poverty, social determinants of health, and gender; we explain why a health equity lens is important to address the health and social inequities boys and men face during pandemics. This contribution provides guidance about future global public health
pandemic responses for society’s most vulnerable groups of boys and men.

Article Details



1. World Health Organization. WHO Director General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 – 11 March 2020. Geneva (Switzerland): The Organization; 2020.
2. World Health Organization. Q & A on coronaviruses (COVID-19) [Internet]. Geneva (Switzerland): The Organization; 2020 [cited 2020 Mar 12]. Available from: https://
3. Smith J, Judd J. COVID-19: vulnerability and the power of privilege in a pandemic. Health Promot J Aust. 2020;31(2):158–60.
4. Anderson M, Heesterbeek H, Klinkenberg D, Hollingsworth T. How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic? Lancet. 2020;395(10228):931–4.
5. Bedford J, Enria D, Giesecke J, et al. COVID-19: towards controlling of a pandemic. Lancet. 2020;395(10229): 1015–8.
6. Lewnard J, Lo N. Scientific and ethical basis for social-distancing interventions against COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from PMC7118670/
7. Hunter D. COVID-19 and the stiff upper lip: the pandemic response in the UK. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(16):E31.
8. Van Lancker W, Parolin Z. COVID-19, school closures, and child poverty: a social crisis in the making. Lancet
Public Health. 2020;5(5):E243–4.
9. Viner R, Russell S, Croker H, Packer, et al. School closure and management practices during coronavirus outbreaks including COVID-19: a rapid systematic review. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020;4(5):397–404.
10. Gostin L, Wiley L. Government public health powers during the COVID-19 pandemic: stay-at-home or-ders, business closures, and travel restrictions. JAMA [Internet]. 2020 Apr 2 [cited 2020 May 19]; E1-E2. Available from: jama/fullarticle/2764283
11. Group of Eight Australia. COVID-19 roadmap to recovery: a report for the nation [Internet]. Canberra (Australia): Group of Eight Australia; 2020 Apr [cited 2020 May 19]. Available at:
12. Wilder-Smith A, Freedman D. Isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment: pivotal role for old-style public health measures in the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. J Travel Med. 2020;27(2):1–4.
13. Baldwin R, Weder di Mauro B. Introduction. In: Baldwin R, di Mauro W, editors. Mitigating the COVID economic crisis: act fast and do whatever it takes. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research Press; 2020. p. 1–24.
14. Eggers W, Flynn M, O’Leary J, Chew B. Government’s response to COVID-19: from pandemic crisis to a better future. A report from the Deloitte Centre for Government Insights. New York: Deloitte Insights; 2020.
15. United Nations. A UN framework for the immediate socio-economic response to COVID-19. New York: United Nations; 2020.
16. Fauci A, Lane C, Redfield R. COVID-19: Navigating the unchartered. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1268–9.
17. Hale T, Petherick A, Phillips T, Webster S. Variation in government responses to COVID-19 (version 3.0). Blavatnik School of Government working paper [Inter-net]. Oxford (United Kingdom): Blavatnik School of Government; 2020 Mar 31 [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from:
18. World Health Organization. Gender and COVID-19: advocacy brief [Internet]. Geneva (Switzerland): The Organization; 2020 May 14 [cited 2020 May 19]. Available from :
19. Schofield T, Connell R, Walker L, Wood J, Butland D. Understanding men’s health and illness: a gender-relations approach to policy, research, and practice. J Am Coll Health. 2000;48(6):247–56.
20. Hankivsky O. Women’s health, men’s health, and gender and health: implications of intersectionality. Soc Sci Med. 2012;74(11):1712–20.
21. World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): situation Report 148. [Internet]. Geneva (Switzerland): The Organization; 2020 Jun 16 [cited 2020 Jun 17]. Available from: a default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200616-covid-19-sitrep-148-draft.pdf?sfvrsn=9b2015e9_2
22. Walter L, McGregor A. Sex- and gender-specific observations and implications for COVID-19. West J Emerg Med. 2020;21(3):507–9.
23. Wenham C, Smith J, Morgan R. COVID-19: the gendered impacts of the outbreak. Lancet. 2020;395(10227):846–8. 24. Baker P. Our own fault? Men and COVID-19. 2020 Mar 31 [cited 2020 May 6]. In: Men’s Health Forum website. BLOG [Internet]. London: Men’s Health Forum. Available from:
25. Ritter Z, Brenan M. New April guidelines boost perceived efficacy of face masks [Internet]. Toronto (ON): Gallup/ Knight Foundation; 2020 Apr 14 [cited 2020 May 19]. Available from: new-april-guidelines-boost-perceived-efficacy-face-masks.aspx?mod=article_inline
26. White A. Men’s biological risk from COVID-19. 2020 Mar 27 [cited 2020 May 6]. In: UK Men’s Health Forum website. BLOG [Internet]. Available from: https://www. -covid-19
27. Purdie A, Hawkes S, Buse K, Onarheim K, Aftab W, et al. Sex, gender and COVID-19: disaggregated data and health disparities. 2020 Mar 26 [cited 2020 May 6]. BMJ Global Health. BLOG [Internet]. Available from:
28. McLachlan R, Wittert G. What COVID-19 really means for men’s health. Melbourne (Australia): Healthy Male; 2020 Apr 30 [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from: what-covid-19-really-means-for-mens-health
29. Global Action on Men’s Health. COVID-19 and men: a call to action. Published online on 12 May 2020; (Ac-cessed on 14 May 2020 via uploads/2020/05/GAMH-statement-on-COVID-19. May-2020.pdf)
30. Alon T, Doepke M, Olmstead-Rumsey J, Tertilt M. The impact of COVID-19 on gender equality. NBER Working Paper No. 26947, April 2020.
31. Betron M, Gottert A, Pulerwitz J, Shattuck D, Stevanovic-Fenn N. Men and COVID-19: adding a gender lens. Glob Public Health [Internet]. 2020 May 21; doi: 10.1080/17441692.2020.1769702
32. World Health Organization. Addressing sex and gender in epidemic prone infectious diseases. Geneva (Switzerland): The Organization; 2007.
33. Griffith D. Biopsychosocial approaches to men’s health disparities research and policy. Behav Med. 2016;42(3):211–5.
34. Dworkin S, Fleming P, Colvin C. The promises and limitations of gender-transformative health program-ming with men: critical reflections from the field. Cult Health Sex. 2015;17(S2):128–43.
35. Smith J, Richardson N, Robertson S. Applying a genders lens to public health discourses on men’s health. In: Gideon J, editor. Handbook on gender and health. Cheltenham (England): Edward Elgar Publishers; 2016.
36. Berger Z, Evans N, Phelan A, Silverman R. COVID-19: control measures must be equitable and inclusive. BMJ. 2020;368:m1141.
37. Carey G. The National Disability Insurance Scheme and COVID-19: a collision course. Med J Aust [Internet]. 2020 May 14 [cited 2020 May 19]. Available from:
38. Crooks K, Casey D, Ward J. First Nations people leading the way in COVID-19 pandemic planning, response and management. Med J Aust [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from: system/files/2020-04/Crooks%20preprint%2029%20 April%202020.pdf
39. Ferrante L, Fearnside P. Protect Indigenous peoples from COVID-19. Science. 2020;368(6488):251.
40. Markham F, Smith D, Morphy F, editors. Indigenous Australians and the COVID-19 crisis: perspectives on public policy. Topical issue no. 1/2020. Canberra (Australia): Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Australian National University; 2020.
41. Laurencin C, McClinton A. The COVID-19 pandemic: a call to action to identify and address racial and ethnic disparities. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities [Internet]. 2020 Apr 18 [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from:
42. Owen W, Carmona R, Pomeroy C. Failing another national stress test on health disparities. JAMA [Internet]. 2020 Apr 15 [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from: ssKey=23098ca6-8f80-47f5-9c57-744b65be5816&utm_ source=silverchair&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=article_ alert-jama&utm_content=olf&utm_term=041520
43. van Dorn A, Cooney R, Sabin M. COVID-19 exacerbating inequalities in the US. Lancet. 2020;395(10232): 1243–4.
44. Williams D, Cooper A. COVID-19 and health equity – a new kind of “herd immunity.” JAMA [Internet]. 2020 May 11 [cited 2020 May 19]. Available from: https://
45. Yancy C. COVID-19 and African Americans. JAMA [Internet]. 2020 Apr 15 [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from: article-abstract/2764789
46. Desborough J, Halls S, de Toca L, Davis S, Roberts L, Kelaher C, et al. Australia’s national COVID-19 primary care response. Med J Aust [Internet]. 2020 Apr 29 [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from: au/system/files/2020-04/Desborough%20preprint%20 29%20April%202020.pdf
47. Cumming C, Wood L, Davies A. People experiencing homelessness urgently need to be recognised as a high risk group for COVID-19. Health Prom J Austr [Inter-net]. 2020 May 7 [cited 2020 May 19]. Available from:
48. Brooke J, Jackson D. Older people and COVID-19: isolation, risk and ageism. J Clin Nurs [Internet]. 2020 Apr 2 [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from: https://
49. Adalja A, Toner E, Inglesby T. Priorities for the US health community responding to COVID-19. JAMA. 2020;323(14):1343–4.
50. Dunn C, Kenney E, Fleischhacker S, Bleich S. Feeding low-income children during the COVID-19 pandemic. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2020 Apr 30 [cited 2020 May 6];382:E40. Available from: full/10.1056/NEJMp2005638
51. Galanakis C. The food systems in the era of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic crisis. Foods. 2020;9(4):523(1–10).
52. Kirby T. Efforts escalate to protect homeless people from COVID-19 in the UK. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8(5):447–9.
53. Tsai J, Wilson M. COVID-19: a potential public health problem for homeless populations. Lancet Public Health. 2020;5(4):E186–7.
54. Fisher M, Baum F, MacDougall C, Newman L, Mc-Dermott D, Phillips C. Intersectoral action on SDH and equity in Australian health policy. Health Promot Int. 2017;32(2):953–63.
55. Smith M, Weinstock D. Reducing health inequities through intersectoral action: balancing equity in health with equity for other social goods. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2019;8(1):1–3.
56. Dyer, O. COVID-19: Black people and other minorities are hardest hit in the US. BMJ [Internet]. 2020 Apr 14 [cited 2020 May 19];369:m1483. Available from: https://
57. Khunti K, Kumar Singh A, Pareek M, Hanif W. Is ethnicity linked to incidence or outcomes of COVID-19? BMJ [Internet]. 2020 Apr 20 [cited 2020 May 19]; 369:m1548. Available from: content/369/bmj.m1548.long
58. Page K, Venkataramani M, Beyrer C, Polk S. Undocumented U.S. immigrants and COVID-19. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2020 Mar 26 [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from: NEJMp2005953
59. Platt L, Warwick R. Are some ethnic groups more vulnerable to COVID-19 than others? An Institute for Fiscal Studies initiative funded by the Nuffield Foundation. London (England): The Institute for Fiscal Studies; 2020 May 1. Available from: inequality/are-some-ethnic-groups-more-vulnerable-to-covid-19-than-others/
60. Office of National Statistics. Coronavirus (COVID-19) related deaths by ethnic group, England & Wales: 2 March 2020 to 10 April 2020 [Internet]. 2020 May 7 [cited 2020 May 19]. Available from: https://www.ons. hnicgroupenglandandwales/2march2020to10april2020
61. Carson A. Deadly choices: the importance of health promotion and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic [Internet]. Croakey; 2020 May 12 [cited 2020 May 19]. Available from:
62. Chowkwanyun M, Reed A. Racial health disparities and COVID-19: caution and context. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2020 May 6 [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from: NEJMp2012910?query=TOC
63. Jones D, Crump A, Lloyd J. Health disparities in boys and men of color. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(S2):S170–2. 64. Griffith D, Bruce M, Thorpe R. Introduction. In: Griffith D, Bruce M, Thorpe R, editors. Men’s health equity: a
handbook. New York: Routledge; 2019.
65. Robertson S, Kilvington-Dowd L. Masculinity and men’s
health disparities. In: Griffith D, Bruce M, Thorpe R, editors. Men’s health equity: a handbook. New York: Routledge; 2019.
66. Smith J, Drummond M, Adams M, Bonson J, Christie B. Understanding inequities in men’s health in Australia: what do we know? In: Griffith D, Bruce M, Thorpe R, editors. Men’s health equity: a handbook. New York: Routledge; 2019. p. 499-511.
67. Smith J, Watkins D, Griffith D. Equity, gender, and health: new directions for global men’s health promotion. Health Promot J Austr. 2020;31(2):161–5.
68. Macdonald J. Shifting paradigms: a social-determinants approach to solving problems in men’s health policy and practice. Med J Aust. 2006;185(8):456–8.
69. Macdonald J, Brown A. Special issue: the social determinants of male health in Australia. Int J Men’s Health. 2011;10(1):3–5.
70. Bruce M, Griffith D, Thorpe R. Social determinants of men’s health disparities. Fam Community Health. 2015;38(4):281–3.
71. Jennings G. An ecological and intersectionality approach to understanding African-American men’s perceptions of the intersections of gender, race, and low SES and social determinants of health. Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations, 2017.
72. Smith J. A national men’s health strategy in Australia: tips for implementation. Int J Men’s Soc Community Health. 2018;1(1):e15–21.
73. Smith J, Adams M, Bonson J. Investment in men’s health in Australia. Med J Aust. 2018;208(1):6–7.
74. Baker P, Dworkin S, Tong S, Banks I, Shand T, et al. The men’s health gap: men must be included in the global health equity agenda. Bull World Health. 2014.
75. Lohan M. How might we understand men’s health better? Integrating explanations from critical studies on men and inequalities in health. Soc Sci Med. 2007;65(3):493–504.
76. Powell WH, Matthews D, Mohottige D, Agyemand A, Corbie-Smith, G. Masculinity, medical mistrust, and preventive health services delays among community-dwelling African-American men. J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25(12):1300–8.
77. Smith J, Robertson S, Richardson N. Understanding gender equity in the context of men’s health policy development. Health Promot J Austr. 2010;21(1):76–7.
78. World Health Organization. Policy approaches to engaging men and boys in achieving gender equality and health equity. Geneva (Switzerland): World Health Organization; 2010.
79. Williams R, Robertson S, Hewison A. Men’s health, inequalities and policies: contradictions, masculinities and public health in England. Critical Public Health. 2010;19(3–4):475–88.
80. Watkins D, Griffith D. Practical solutions to addressing men’s health disparities. Int J Men’s Health. 2013;12(3):187–94.
81. Griffith D. “I AM a man”: Manhood, minority men’s health and health equity. Ethn Dis. 2015;25(3):287–93. 82. Watkins D, Allen J, Goodwill J, Noel B. Strengths and weaknesses of the Young Black Men, Masculinities, and Mental Health (YBMen) Facebook Project. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2017;87(4):392–401.
83. Smith J, Merlino A, Christie B et al. Guys are meant to be "tough as nails". The complex nexus between masculinities, culture and health literacy from the perspective of young Aboriginal and Torres Straight islander males. Am J Mens Health May/June 2020: 1-17.
84. Watkins D. A light on the path to and promise for Black men’s mental health. Men Masculinities. 2019;22(5):917–20.
85. Griffith D, Metzl J, Gunter K. Considering intersections of race and gender in interventions that address US men’s health disparities. Public Health. 2011;125(7):417–23.
86. Griffith D, Ellis K, Allen J. An intersectional approach to social determinants of stress for African American men: men’s and women’s perspectives. Am J Men’s Health. 2013;7(Suppl 4):19S–30S.
87. Gilbert L, Ray R, Siddiqi A, Shetty S, Baker E, Elder K, et al. Visible and invisible trends in Black men’s health: pitfalls and promises for addressing racial, ethnic, and gender inequities in health. Annu Rev Public Health. 2016;37:295–311.
88. Fredericks B, Judd J, Daniels C, Bainbridge R, Clapham K, Longbottom M, et al. Gendered Indigenous health and wellbeing within the Australian Health System: a review of the literature. North Rockhampton (Aus-tralia): CQUniversity; 2017.
89. Sinclair K, Pritchard D. An intersectional mixed methods approach to Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander men’s health. Asian Am J Psychol. 2019;10(3):268–81.
90. Griffith D. Achieving men’s health equity. In: Bryant Smalley K, Warren JC, Fernández MI, editors. Health equity: a solutions-focused approach. New York: Springer. Forthcoming.
91. Vogel DL, Heimerdinger-Edwards SR, Hammer JH, Hubbard A. “Boys don’t cry”: examination of the links between endorsement of masculine norms, self-stigma, and help-seeking attitudes for men from diverse backgrounds. J Couns Psychol. 2011;58(3):368–82.
92. Cunningham M, White A. Young adulthood and health disparities in African American males. In: Griffith D, Bruce M, Thorpe R, editors. Men’s health equity: a handbook. New York: Routledge; 2019. p. 57–71.
93. Vandello J, Bosson J, Lawler J. Precarious manhood and men’s health disparities. In: Griffith D, Bruce M, Thorpe R, editors. Men’s health equity: a handbook. New York: Routledge; 2019. p. 27–41.
94. Wimer C, Bloom D. Boosting the life chances of young men of color: evidence from promising programs. New York City: MDRC; 2014.
95. Elton-Marshall T, Leatherdale S, Burkhalter R. Tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use among Aboriginal youth living-off reserve: results from the youth smoking survey. CMAJ. 2011;183(8):E480–6.
96. Freedman K, Nelson N, Feldman L. Smoking initiation among young adults in the United States and Canada, 1998–2010: a systematic review. Prev Chronic Dis. 2012;9(110037).
97. Heerde J, Scholes-Balog K, Hempill S. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review. Arch Sex Behav. 2015;44(1): 181–212.
98. Crosby R, Mena L, Geter A, Hickson, D. Similarities and difference in sexual risk behaviors between young Black MSM who do and do not have sex with females. AIDS Behav. 2016;20:717–21.
99. Aduloju-Ajijola N, Payne-Foster P. Five years later: how are we addressing the sexual health of Black boys? Intern Med Rev. 2017;3(5):1–11.
100. Chartier K, Hesselbrock M, Hesselbrock V. Alcohol problems in young adults transitioning from adolescence to adulthood: the association with race and gender. Addict Behav. 2011;36(3):167–74.
101. Rich J. Moving toward healing: trauma and violence and boys and young men of color. Issues brief. Princeton (NJ): Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; 2016.
102. Gallant D, Andrews S, Humphreys C, Diemer K, Ellis D, Burton J, et al. Aboriginal men’s programs tackling family violence: a scoping review. J Aust Indigenous Issues. 2017;20(2):48–68.
103. Watkins D, Walker R, Griffith D. A meta-study of Black male mental health and well-being. J Black Psychol. 2010;36(3):303–30.
104. Prevention Institute. Making connections for mental health and wellbeing among men and boys in the US: a report on the mental health and wellbeing of men and boys in the US and opportunities to advance outcomes related to prevention, early detection and stigma reduction. Report prepared for the Movember Foundation. Oakland (CA): Prevention Institute; 2014.
105. Armstrong G, Pirkis J, Arabena K, Currier D, Spittal M, Jorm A. Suicidal behaviour in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia: prevalence data suggest disparities increase across age groups. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2017;51(12):1240–8.
106. Lindsey M, Xiao Y. Depression, trauma, and suicide among adolescent and young adult males. In: Griffith D, Bruce M, Thorpe R, editors. Men’s health equity: a handbook. New York: Routledge; 2019. p. 288–303.
107. Hughes C. Factors associated with health-seeking among Native Hawaiian men. Pacific Health Dialog. 2004;11(2):176–82.
108. Barker G. Adolescents, social support and help-seeking behaviour: an international literature review and programme consultation with recommendations for action. Geneva (Switzerland): World Health Organization; 2007.
109. Canuto K, Brown A, Wittert G, Harfield S. Understanding the utilization of primary health care services by Indigenous men: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1198).
110. Canuto K, Harfield S, Wittert G, Brown A. Listen, understand, collaborate: developing innovative strategies to improve health service utilisation by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men. Austr N Z J Public Health. 2019;43(4):307–9.
111. Planey A, McNeil Smith S, Moore S, Walker T. Barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking among African American youth and their families: a systematic review study. Children Youth Serv Rev. 2019;101:190–200.
112. Newton R, Griffith DM, Kearney W, Bennett G. A systematic review of physical activity, dietary, and weight loss interventions involving African American men. Obesity Rev. 2014;15(Suppl S4):93–106.
113. Watkins D, Mitchell J, Hawkins J, Mouzon D. A field scan of physical and mental health interventions for adult Black men in the United States. Commissioned report submitted to RISE for Boys and Men of Color. Philadelphia (PA): University of Pennsylvania; 2017.
114. Griffith D, Bergner E, Cornish E, McQueen C. Physical activity interventions with African American or Latino men: a systematic review. Am J Men’s Health. 2018;12(4):1102–17.
115. Canuto K, Harfield S, Canuto K, Brown A. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men and parenting: a scoping review. Aust J Prim Health. 2020;26:1–9.
116. Cook B, Barret J, Hou S, Samson F. The intersection of the criminal justice, education, and mental healthcare systems and its influence on boys and young men of color. Prepared for RISE for Boys and Men of Color.
117. Rovito M, Leone J. Faith and masculinity: a discussion on raising awareness and promoting cancer screening among Latino men. Calif J Health Promot. 2012;10(1):70–7.
118. Lee S, Schorr E, Hadidi NN, et al. Power of peer support to change health behavior to reduce risks for heart disease and stroke for African American men in a faith-based community. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2018;5:1107–16.
119. Griffith D, Jaeger E. Mighty men: a faith-based weight loss intervention to reduce cancer risk in African American men. In: Ford ME, Watson DK, editors. Advances in cancer health equity research (Advances in Cancer Research book series). Vol. 156. Cambridge (MA): Elsevier; 2020.
120. Releford B, Frencher S, Yancey A. Health promotion in barbershops: balancing outreach and research in African American communities. Ethn Dis. 2010;20(2):185–8.
121. Moore N, Wright M, Gipson J, et al. A survey of African American men in chicago barbershops: implications for the effectiveness of the barbershop model in the health promotion of African American men. J Community Health. 2016;41:772–9.
122. Bull S, Levine D, Black S, Schmiege S, Santelli J. Social media-delivered sexual health intervention: a cluster randomized control trial. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43(5):467–74.
123. Goodwill J, Watkins D, Johnson N, Allen J. An exploratory study of stress and coping among Black college men. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2018;88(5):538–49.
124. Spievack N, Brown M, Durham C, Loprest P. Explor-ing approaches to increase economic opportunity for young men of color: a 10-year review. A research report prepared by the Urban Institute; 2020.
125. Tsey K, Patterson D, Whiteside M, Baird L, Baird B. Indigenous men taking their rightful place in society? Preliminary analysis of a participatory action research process with Yarrabah men’s health group. Aust J Rural Health. 2003;10(6):278–84.
126. McCalman J, Tsey K, Wenitong M, Wilson A, McEwan A, Cadet-James E, Whiteside M. Indigenous men’s support groups and social and emotional wellbeing: a meta-synthesis of the evidence. Aust J Prim Health. 2010;16:159–66.
127. Bulman J, Hayes R. Bibbinbah and spirit healing: fostering safe, friendly spaces for Indigenous males in Australia. Int J Men’s Health. 2011;10(1):6–25.
128. Tello J, Cervantes R, Cordova D, Santos S. Joven Noble: evaluation of a culturally focused youth development program. J Community Psychol. 2010;38(6):799–811.
129. Yellow Horse Brave Heart M, Elkins J, Tafoya G, Bird D, Salvador M. Wicasa Was’aka: restoring the traditional strength of American Indian boys and men. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:S177–83.
130. Gross P, Efimoff I, Patrick L, Josewski V, Hau K, Lambert S, Smye V. The DUDES Club: a brotherhood for men’s health. Can Fam Physician. 2016;62(6): e311–8.
131. Cupples J, Zukoski A, Dierwechter T. Reaching young men: Lessons learned in the recruitment, training, and utilization of male peer sexual health educators. Health Promot Pract. 2010;11(3 Suppl);19S–25S.
132. De Coux M. Afrocentric peer leadership: implications for academic achievement [dissertation]. Oakland (CA): Holy Names University; 2018.
133. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Building a culture of health by creating opportunities for boys and young men of color. Princeton (NJ): Robert Wood John Foundation and the Mariah Group; 2016.
134. Collins J, Suarez C, Beatty C, Rosch D. Fostering leadership capacity among black male achievers: findings from an identity-based leadership immersion program. J Leadership Educ. 2017;16(13):82–96.
135. Borjas G. Demographic determinants of testing inci-dence and Covid-19 in New York city neighborhoods. Working Paper 26952. Cambridge (MA): National Bureau of Economic Research; 2020.
136. Joe E, Davis J. Parental influence, school readiness and early academic achievement of African American boys. J Negro Educ. 2009;78(3):260–76.
137. Brinkman S, Gialamas A, Rhaman A, Mittinty M, Gregory T, et al. Jurisdictional, socioeconomic and gender inequalities in child health and development: analysis of a national census of 5-years-olds in Australia. BMJ Open. 2012;2(5):e001075.
138. Iruka I. Predictors of infant and toddler Black boys’ early learning: seizing opportunities and minimizing risks. Infant Ment Health J. 2017;38(1):128–42.
139. Simpson D. Parenting high achieving boys in poverty: critiquing ‘active cultivation’ as explanation for ‘beating the odds’ in the early years. Int J Early Years Educ [Internet]. 2020 Feb 27 [cited 2020 May 11]. Available from: https://www.tandfonline. com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09669760.2020.1733940?c asa_token=W5RaEQKtzewAAAAA:O_zdPLXp4G8e3 U_7orzd4TujY5ggCWeWQ4zYX0-k6AoT3R87AorS-0w0IA6Ql3FR7VoUkThwAnPy5A
140. Fenning P, Rose J. Over-representation of African American students in exclusionary discipline: the role of school policy. Urban Educ. 2007;42(6):536–59.
141. White H. Increasing the achievement of African American males. Research brief No. 3. Report from the Department of Research, Evaluation & Assessment; 2009.
142. Hare J, Pidgeon M. The way of the warrior: Indigenous youth navigating the challenges of schooling. Can J Educ. 2011;34(2):93–111.
143. Losen D. Discipline policies, successful schools, and racial justice. Boulder (CO): National Education Policy Center; 2011.
144. Dreise T, Thomson S. Unfinished business: PISA shows that Indigenous youth are being left behind. Occasional essay for the Australian Council of Education Research. Camberwell (Australia): Australian Council of Education Research; 2014.
145. Voisin D, Elsaesser C. Brief report: the protective effects of school engagement for African American adolescent males. J Health Psychol. 2014;21(4):573–6.
146. Sikora J, Biddle N. How gendered is ambition? Educational and occupational plans for Indigenous youth in Australia. Int J Educ Development. 2015;42:1–3.
147. Addis S, Withington C. Improving high school graduation rates among males of color: trends, findings, and recommendations. Issues brief. Princeton (NJ): Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; 2016.
148. Ferguson R. Aiming higher together: strategizing better educational outcomes for boys and young men of color. Research report prepared by Malcolm Wiener Centre for Social Policy, Harvard Kennedy School, Urban Institute; 2016.
149. Godsil R. Tools for addressing the disproportionate discipline of boys of color in schools. Prepared for RISE for Boys and Men of Color.
150. Richardson N, Smith J. National men’s health policies in Ireland and Australia: what are the challenges associated with transitioning from development to implementation? J Public Health. 2010;125(7): 424–32.
151. Richardson N, Smith J, Robertson S, Baker P. Global men’s health policy. In: Griffith D, Bruce M, Thorpe R, editors. Men’s health equity: a handbook. New York: Routledge; 2019. p. 202–22.
152. Stahl G, McDonald S, Stokes J. (2020). “I see myself as undeveloped”: supporting Indigenous first-in-family males in the transition into higher education. Higher Educ Res Dev [Internet]. 2020 Feb 24 [cited 2020 May 8]. Available from: https://www.tandfonline. com/doi/abs/10.1080/07294360.2020.1728521?journalCode=cher20
153. Sandford K, Madill L. Critical literacy learning through video games: adolescent boys’ perspectives. E-Learning Digital Media. 2007;4(3):285–96.
154. Steinkuehler C, King E. Digital literacies for the disengaged: creating after school contexts to support boys’ game-based literacy skills. On Horizon. 2009;17(1):47–59.
155. McCoy K. A study of African American males and their response to online learning [dissertation]. Minneapolis (MN): Capella University; 2012.
156. Tsai M, Liang J, Hou H, Tsai C. Males are not as active as females in online discussion: gender differences in face-to-face and online discussion strategies. Aust J Educ Technol. 2015;31(3):263–77.
157. Christensen R, Knezek G. Blending formal and informal learning through an online immersive game environment: contrasts in interactions by middle school boys and girls. In: Chamblee G, Langub L, editors. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference; 2016 Mar 21–25; Savannah, GA. Waynesville (NC): Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education; 2016.
158. Lewis N. African American male students’ experiences in an online learning program in an urban alternative school [dissertation]. Statesboro (GA): Georgia Southern University; 2016.
159. Salvo S, Shelton K, Welch B. African American males learning online: promoting academic achievement in higher education. Online Learning. 2019;23(1):22–36.
160. Pujazon-Zazik M, Park M. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents’ social internet use. Am J Mens Health. 2010;4(1):77–85.
161. Robinson M, Robertson S. Young men’s health promotion and new information communication technologies: illuminating the issues and research agendas. Health Promot Int. 2010;25(3):363–70.
162. Lelutiu-Weinberger C, Pachankis JE, Gamarel K, Su-race A, Golub S, Parsons J. Feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a live-chat social media intervention to reduce HIV risk among young men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav. 2015;19:1214–27.
163. Muessig K, Pike E, Fowler B, LeGrand S, Parsons J, et al. Putting prevention in their pockets: developing mobile phone-based HIV interventions for Black men that have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(4):211–22.
164. Brooks J. The utility of restorative justice in urban communities for Afro American males 12–17 [dissertation]. Minneapolis (MN): Walden University; 2011.
165. Ali C. The Bail Boys Court: conflict transformation and restorative justice in Trinidad. Caribbean J Int Relat Diplomacy. 2013;1(4):3–22.
166. Bergseth K, Bouffard J. Examining the effectiveness of a restorative justice program for various types of juvenile offenders. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2013;57(9):1054–75.
167. Liberman A, Fontaine J. Reducing harms to boys and young men of colour from criminal justice system involvement. Washington: Urban Institute; 2015.
168. Thorburn K, Marshall M. The Yiriman Project in the West Kimberley: an example of justice reinvestment. Current initiatives paper 5. Sydney (Australia): Indigenous Clearing House; 2017.
169. Willis M, Kapira M. Justice reinvestment in Australia: a review of the literature. Research report series; 2206-7280. Canberra (Australia): Australian Institute of Criminology; 2018.
170. Doyle M, Shakeshaft A, Guthrie J, Snijder M, Butler T. A systematic review of evaluations of prison-based alcohol and other drug use behavioural treatment for men. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2019;43(2):120–30.
171. McCollister K, French M, Prendergast M, Wexler H, Sacks S, Hall E. Is in-prison treatment enough? A cost-effective analysis of prison-based treatment and aftercare services for substance-abusing offenders. Law Policy. 2003;25(1):63–82.
172. Page G. Rapid review: the throughcare and aftercare of drug-dependent (ex)prisoners—key resettlement needs and UK service level responses. Support Paper 3 for Ex-Prisoners Recovering from Addiction (EPRA). Heslington (England): University of York; 2017.
173. Williams J, Bergeson C. Incarceration as determinant of poor health outcomes. Introduction. In: Griffith D, Bruce M, Thorpe R, editors. Men’s health equity: a handbook. New York: Routledge; 2019. p. 180–8.
174. Tubex H, Rynne J, Blagg H. Throughcare needs of Indigenous people living in Western Australia and the Northern Territory. Trends Issues Crime Criminal Justice. 2020;585:1–14.
175. Shepherd S, Spivak B. Re-considering the immediate release of prisoners during COVID-19 community restrictions. Med J Aust [Internet]. 2020 May 7 [cited 2020 May 19]. Available from: au/journal/2020/re-considering-immediate-release-prisoners-during-covid-19-community-restrictions
176. Kickbusch I. Health in all policies: where to from here? Health Promot Int. 2010;25(3):261–4.
177. Government of South Australia and World Health Organization. Progressing the sustainable development goals through health in all policies: case studies from around the world. Adelaide (Australia): Government of South Australia; 2017.
178. Fisher M, Baum F, MacDougall C, Newman L, Mc-Dermott D, Phillips C. Intersectoral action on SDH and equity in Australian health policy. Health Promot Int. 2017;32(6):953–63.
179. van Eyk HC, Harris E, Baum FE, Delany-Crowe TN, Lawless AP, MacDougall CJ. Health in all poli-cies in south Australia—did it promote and enact an equity perspective? Int J Envir Res Public Health. 2017;14(1228). doi:10.3390/ijerph14111288.
180. Smith J, Griffiths K, Judd J, Crawford G, D’Antoine H, Fisher M, Bainbridge R. Ten years on from the Commission on Social Determinants of Health Final Report: progress or procrastination? Health Promot J Aust. 2018;29(1):3–7.
181. Merck A. We need healthier communities to overcome COVID-19. 2020 May 6 [cited 2020 May 10]. Available from: we-need-healthier-communities-to-overcome-covid-19/
182. Daly J, Dovey K, Stevens Q. We can’t let coronavirus kill our cities. Here’s how we can save urban life. 2020 May 12 [cited 2020 May 13]. Available from: https://
183. Reid C. New Zealand first country to fund pop-up bike lanes, widened sidewalks during lockdown. 2020 Apr 15 [cited 2020 May 12]. Available from: new-zealand-first-country-to-fund-pop-up-bike-lanes-widened-sidewalks-during-lockdown/#202bc9c8546e
184. Atherton E, Lydon M, Hutcheson R, Benjamin K, Pardo C. Complete Streets responses to COVID-19 [webinar]. Complete Streets 301: putting people first. Delivered for Smart Growth America. 2020 Apr 30 [cited 2020 May 19]. Available from: webinar-recap-complete-streets-responses-to-covid-19/)
185. Prati G, Fraboni F, De Angelis M, Pietrantoni L. Gender differences in cyclists’ crashes: an analysis of routinely recorded crash data. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 2019;26(4):391–8.