Main Article Content
Aims: Men are more likely to engage in alcohol consumption, which can have long term consequences. The objective of our study was to sample Canadian men to determine predictors of alcohol hazardous consumption as well as predictors for change.
Methods: Canadian men were surveyed investigating demographics, medical comorbidities, health behaviors and their willingness to change. Alcohol consumption was classified based on validated Audit-C scoring (>3 was positive for dependency or abuse). Stages of change were classified based on the trans-theoretical model of change (pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). Multivariate regression was performed to determine demographic factors as predictors for consumption and change.
Results: After exclusions and sample stratification, 2000 participants were included. Participants were aged 19-94 (median 48, IQR 34-60). Approximately 773 (38.7%) screened positive based on Audit-C scores. On multivariate analysis, minority status, age, work, income, retirement, living situation, geographic location and level of education were associated with hazardous drinking. Of those with hazardous drinking, the majority were in pre-contemplation or contemplation 488 (63.1%). On multivariate analysis, various demographic factors were associated with the five stages of change.
Conclusion: Our study illustrates that approximately 40% of men screen positive for unhealthy drinking behavior and associated demographic risk factors for those at highest risk. The majority are in the earliest stages in trans-theoretical model for change (>60%), and there exist only few associated demographic risk factors. This warrants awareness of this national problem, insight for patient education and targeted interventions to address hazardous behavior and reduce morbidity and mortality.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright of articles published in all DPG titles is retained by the author(s). The author(s) grants DPG the rights to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher. The author grants DPG exclusive commercial rights to the article. The author grants any party the rights to use the article freely for non-commercial purposes provided that the original work is properly cited.
2. Sodergren M. Lifestyle predictors of healthy ageing in men. Maturitas 2013; 75: 113-117. DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.02.011.
3. Teo CH, Ling CJ and Ng CJ. Improving Health Screening Uptake in Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. American journal of preventive medicine 2018; 54: 133-143. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.08.028.
4. Wilsnack RW, Vogeltanz ND, Wilsnack SC, et al. Gender differences in alcohol consumption and adverse drinking consequences: cross-cultural patterns. Addiction 2000; 95: 251-265.
5. Wilsnack RW, Wilsnack SC, Kristjanson AF, et al. Gender and alcohol consumption: patterns from the multinational GENACIS project. Addiction 2009; 104: 1487-1500. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02696.x.
6. White IR, Altmann DR and Nanchahal K. Alcohol consumption and mortality: modelling risks for men and women at different ages. BMJ 2002; 325: 191.
7. Bradley KA, Bush KR, McDonell MB, et al. Screening for problem drinking : Comparison of CAGE and AUDIT. J Gen Intern Med 1998; 13: 379-388. DOI: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.1998.00118.x.
8. Jhanjee S. Evidence based psychosocial interventions in substance use. Indian J Psychol Med 2014; 36: 112-118. DOI: 10.4103/0253-7176.130960.
9. Prochaska JO and Velicer WF. The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. Am J Health Promot 1997; 12: 38-48.
10. Keyes KM and Hasin DS. Socio-economic status and problem alcohol use: the positive relationship between income and the DSM-IV alcohol abuse diagnosis. Addiction 2008; 103: 1120-1130. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02218.x.
11. Collins SE. Associations Between Socioeconomic Factors and Alcohol Outcomes. Alcohol Res 2016; 38: 83-94.
12. Marshall EJ. Adolescent alcohol use: risks and consequences. Alcohol Alcohol 2014; 49: 160-164. DOI: 10.1093/alcalc/agt180.
13. Moore AA, Gould R, Reuben DB, et al. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of alcohol consumption in the United States. Am J Public Health 2005; 95: 458-465. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2003.019471.
14. Huckle T, You RQ and Casswell S. Socio-economic status predicts drinking patterns but not alcohol-related consequences independently. Addiction 2010; 105: 1192-1202. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.02931.x.
15. Bush K, Kivlahan DR, McDonell MB, et al. The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C): an effective brief screening test for problem drinking. Ambulatory Care Quality Improvement Project (ACQUIP). Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 1789-1795.
16. Bradley KA, DeBenedetti AF, Volk RJ, et al. AUDIT-C as a brief screen for alcohol misuse in primary care. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2007; 31: 1208-1217. DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00403.x.
17. Canada S. Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey. 2015.
18. Williams DR, Priest N and Anderson NB. Understanding associations among race, socioeconomic status, and health: Patterns and prospects. Health Psychol 2016; 35: 407-411. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000242.
19. Sudhinaraset M, Wigglesworth C and Takeuchi DT. Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use: Influences in a Social-Ecological Framework. Alcohol Res 2016; 38: 35-45.
20. Agic B, Mann RE, Tuck A, et al. Alcohol use among immigrants in Ontario, Canada. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016; 35: 196-205. DOI: 10.1111/dar.12250.
21. Eigenbrodt ML, Mosley TH, Jr., Hutchinson RG, et al. Alcohol consumption with age: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 1987-1995. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 153: 1102-1111.
22. Britton A and Bell S. Reasons why people change their alcohol consumption in later life: findings from the Whitehall II Cohort Study. PLoS One 2015; 10: e0119421. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119421.
23. Xu X and Chaloupka FJ. The effects of prices on alcohol use and its consequences. Alcohol Res Health 2011; 34: 236-245.
24. Wang X, Steier JB and Gallo WT. The effect of retirement on alcohol consumption: results from the US Health and Retirement Study. Eur J Public Health 2014; 24: 485-489. DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cku027.
25. Lamberti M, Napolitano F, Napolitano P, et al. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders among under- and post-graduate healthcare students in Italy. PLoS One 2017; 12: e0175719. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175719.
26. Ducharme F, Lebel P, Lachance L, et al. Implementation and effects of an individual stress management intervention for family caregivers of an elderly relative living at home: a mixed research design. Res Nurs Health 2006; 29: 427-441. DOI: 10.1002/nur.20152.
27. Taylor GCsCPHO. Alcohol Consumption in Canada - The Chief Public Health Officer’s Report on the State of Public Health in Canada 2015. 2015: 1-72.
28. von Bonsdorff MB, Seitsamo J, von Bonsdorff ME, et al. Job strain among blue-collar and white-collar employees as a determinant of total mortality: a 28-year population-based follow-up. BMJ Open 2012; 2: e000860. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000860.
29. Enoch MA and Goldman D. Problem drinking and alcoholism: diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician 2002; 65: 441-448.
30. Perissinotto CM and Covinsky KE. Living alone, socially isolated or lonely--what are we measuring? J Gen Intern Med 2014; 29: 1429-1431. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-014-2977-8.