Predictors of Unhealthy Alcohol Consumption Behavior in Canadian Men

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Nahid Punjani
Ryan Flannigan
Nick Black
Larry Goldenberg


men's health, unhealthy alcohol consumption, transtheoretical model for change


Aims: Men are more likely to engage in alcohol consumption, which can have long term consequences. The objective of our study was to sample Canadian men to determine predictors of alcohol hazardous consumption as well as predictors for change.

Methods: Canadian men were surveyed investigating demographics, medical comorbidities, health behaviors and their willingness to change. Alcohol consumption was classified based on validated Audit-C scoring (>3 was positive for dependency or abuse). Stages of change were classified based on the trans-theoretical model of change (pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). Multivariate regression was performed to determine demographic factors as predictors for consumption and change.

Results: After exclusions and sample stratification, 2000 participants were included. Participants were aged 19-94 (median 48, IQR 34-60). Approximately 773 (38.7%) screened positive based on Audit-C scores. On multivariate analysis, minority status, age, work, income, retirement, living situation, geographic location and level of education were associated with hazardous drinking. Of those with hazardous drinking, the majority were in pre-contemplation or contemplation 488 (63.1%). On multivariate analysis, various demographic factors were associated with the five stages of change.

 Conclusion: Our study illustrates that approximately 40% of men screen positive for unhealthy drinking behavior and associated demographic risk factors for those at highest risk. The majority are in the earliest stages in trans-theoretical model for change (>60%), and there exist only few associated demographic risk factors. This warrants awareness of this national problem, insight for patient education and targeted interventions to address hazardous behavior and reduce morbidity and mortality.

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